Posts Tagged 'Temporal lobes'

Brains and eyes

After our first survey on the morphological relationships between eyes and brains, here a comprehensive second study on this same topic. We have analyzed data from computed tomography (orbits and endocranial space) and magnetic resonance (eyes and brain), investigating modern humans, apes, and fossils. Soft tissue variation mainly deals with the distance between eyes and temporal lobes. Cranial variation mainly concerns the orientation of the orbits, probably influenced by parietal morphology and variation of the head functional axis. Phylogenetic differences are generally associated with the distance between orbits and braincase, with fossil humans showing an intermediate position between modern humans and apes. Here a Skull Box post with more details.

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Temporal sulcal pattern

Rosas et al 2014Neuroanatomical evidence suggests that we have relatively larger temporal lobes when compared with the apes’ allometric brain variation. Actually, there are also some form differences in our middle cranial fossa, housing the temporal lobes. However, the morphology of the middle endocranial fossa is influenced by many factors involved in the cranial base phylogeny and ontogeny, and we can wonder whether it strictly represents, in terms or direct linear variations, corresponding changes of the temporal lobes. The structural relationship with the underlying mandible is just one of the many non-neural influences of the middle endocranial area. Nonetheless, the middle endocranial surface can also provide information on the sulcal pattern of the temporal cortex, now further investigated by Antonio Rosas and Markus Bastir. In this case, the resulting morphology is more likely to be the direct consequence of brain morphogenesis and cortical organization, being less influenced by structural cranial constraints. That is, possible species-specific differences in the sulcal pattern can be more easily interpreted in terms of intrinsic brain factors (independently upon their functional meaning), more than in terms of extrinsic  secondary consequences of the complex spatial dynamics of the endocranial base.


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  • NEANDERTAL COGNITION OFFERED ONLINE (ACCELERATED FORMAT) DECEMBER 2018
    The Center for Cognitive Archaeology will be offering its Neandertal Cognition class online in an accelerated format from December 10, 2018 through January 31, 2019. How may Neandertals have experienced their world? How may their cognition and culture differed from ours? Were they pragmatic? Callous or cold-hearted? Did they love, were they charitable? Were […]

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  • Automated digital tools
    Since the early 2000s, the expansion of digital anatomy tools has been aided by advances in computational power and accessibility of medical imaging such as Computed Tomography (CT). The greater accessibility to digital imaging of fossil material has allowed the reconstructions of inner cranial cavities (endocasts), sinuses cavities, and dental reconstructio […]

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  • Researchers develop non-invasive deep brain stimulation method
    Researchers at MIT have developed a new method of electrically stimulating deep brain tissues without opening the skullSince 1997, more than 100,000 Parkinson’s Disease patients have been treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical technique that involves the implantation of ultra-thin wire electrodes. The implanted device, sometimes referred to as […]

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