Posts Tagged 'Temporal lobes'

Brains and eyes

After our first survey on the morphological relationships between eyes and brains, here a comprehensive second study on this same topic. We have analyzed data from computed tomography (orbits and endocranial space) and magnetic resonance (eyes and brain), investigating modern humans, apes, and fossils. Soft tissue variation mainly deals with the distance between eyes and temporal lobes. Cranial variation mainly concerns the orientation of the orbits, probably influenced by parietal morphology and variation of the head functional axis. Phylogenetic differences are generally associated with the distance between orbits and braincase, with fossil humans showing an intermediate position between modern humans and apes. Here a Skull Box post with more details.

Temporal sulcal pattern

Rosas et al 2014Neuroanatomical evidence suggests that we have relatively larger temporal lobes when compared with the apes’ allometric brain variation. Actually, there are also some form differences in our middle cranial fossa, housing the temporal lobes. However, the morphology of the middle endocranial fossa is influenced by many factors involved in the cranial base phylogeny and ontogeny, and we can wonder whether it strictly represents, in terms or direct linear variations, corresponding changes of the temporal lobes. The structural relationship with the underlying mandible is just one of the many non-neural influences of the middle endocranial area. Nonetheless, the middle endocranial surface can also provide information on the sulcal pattern of the temporal cortex, now further investigated by Antonio Rosas and Markus Bastir. In this case, the resulting morphology is more likely to be the direct consequence of brain morphogenesis and cortical organization, being less influenced by structural cranial constraints. That is, possible species-specific differences in the sulcal pattern can be more easily interpreted in terms of intrinsic brain factors (independently upon their functional meaning), more than in terms of extrinsic  secondary consequences of the complex spatial dynamics of the endocranial base.


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  • Neandertal Cognition Offered Online Now at the Center for Cognitive Archaeology @ UCCS
    How did Neandertals experience their world? How did their cognition and culture differ from ours? Were they pragmatic? Callous or cold-hearted? Did they love, were they charitable? Were they tough? Dogmatic? Xenophobic? Join Professor Frederick L. Coolidge for our online course in Neandertal Cognition. Together, we will explore the mind of some of our recent […]

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  • Frontal bone, parietal bone
    The skull provides a protection for the brain, and thus its composition and structure are of interest in biomechanics, for biomedical engineers and … for the Army too. Cranial vault bones consist of three layers of bone tissue – the inner and outer tables that are made of cortical bone tissue, and the cancellous bone […]

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  • Researchers develop non-invasive deep brain stimulation method
    Researchers at MIT have developed a new method of electrically stimulating deep brain tissues without opening the skullSince 1997, more than 100,000 Parkinson’s Disease patients have been treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical technique that involves the implantation of ultra-thin wire electrodes. The implanted device, sometimes referred to as […]

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