Posts Tagged 'sulcal patterns'

Subparietal morphology

Pedro-Pereira and Bruner 2016In this last years we have been studying the morphology, surface and position of the precuneus in adult humans and chimps. This week we publish a survey on its coronal anatomy: lateral extension and sulcal pattern. The aim of this article is to provide a quantitative description of its parasagittal variation in terms of morphometrics and folding schemes. The subparietal sulcus is larger on the right side, and possibly larger in males. The size of the subparietal sulcus is not associated with the sulcal scheme, which is very variable even between hemispheres of the same individual. The height of the precuneus influences the outer cortical profile, but the morphology and width of the subparietal sulcus have no apparent effect on the external brain geometry. The precuneus in general influences the upper cortical shape, with scarce or no influence on the lateral outline of the upper parietal lobules. Therefore, shape changes in this lateral areas are more likely to be associated with changes of the intraparietal fold. Correlations between inner and outer morphology are useful to evaluate whether changes in deep anatomical elements can be indirectly evidenced in paleoneurology, through the analysis of the outer (endocranial) surface.

Plasticity

Gomez-Robles et al 2015Brain evolution involves changes in size and morphology, but also changes in the capacity to be changed. Plasticity refers to the range of phenotypic variation allowed within a given genetic structure. Environment is a major factor influencing the phenotypic expression, and we humans have a special additional environmental component called “culture”. The ecological, cultural, and social niches, shape each others, with dynamics which are far from being understood. Aida Gómez-Robles and colleagues have now published a morphological analysis of human and chimp brain, taking into consideration heritability. In both species cranial capacity is highly heritable, more for humans than for chimps. Also the general dimensions of the main brain areas show in both species an apparent genetic component. The situation is different when dealing with sulcal morphology, which are still heritable for chimps but not that much for humans. This means that brain morphology in chimps has a stricter genetic program, while humans are more sensitive to non-genetic factors and individual responses. Environmental influences are supposed to be the key, mostly when considering the altricial condition and heterochronic changes associated with the human brain growth and development. In a recent review on the evolution of visuospatial integration with Atsushi Iriki we focused on the necessity to understand to what extent brain changes associated with human evolution are due to genetic, epigenetic or environmental factors. We pointed to the sensitivity of the brain to be “trained” through feedbacks between biology and culture as a crucial variable targeted by selection. This new study stresses further the possibility that selection can act on the capacity to change, more than on the change itself.

Ancestry

Fan et al 2015 (Curr Biol)The skull has represented, since ever, a crystal ball to investigate history and geography of past and present human populations. Considering the reciprocal influences between brain and braincase, we can wonder whether the brain can also provide traces of that long run. It looks like it does, according to a recent study which evidences a correlation between cortical patterns and genetic ancestry. It seems not a matter of size or surface area, but of cortical organization and sulcal geometry. If confirmed, these results are extremely interesting. Taking into account these differences among human groups, the authors of the study cast some doubts on the possibility to obtain robust information from fossil species, questioning the relationships between brain shape changes and specific volumetric variations of the brain districts. I must confess I can’t really see an antagonistic relationship between these results and the paleoneurological data. Intra-specific and inter-specific variations do not necessarily undergo the same rules and patterns. Most importantly, paleoneurological evidence is also aimed at considering specific changes of surface and volume proportions, beyond sulcal appearance. And, as recently described for the precuneus, larger size of a brain element may generally mean larger cortex of that element. Brain and braincase share a lot of morphogenetic mechanisms, but of course they are also influenced by independent factors. Their boundaries may vary according to different rules, but the intimate relationships between their respective surfaces allow at least a gross quantification of spatial organization, volumetric changes, and relative proportions among brain areas. We know that morphological changes as shown on endocasts are only a part of the story, and we know they are not always associated with neural (or even cognitive) changes. But reductionists approaches should be avoided in any fields, including genetics or neuroimaging, not only in paleoneurology. Conversely, a genetic signal on the sulcal pattern may promote further interest in brain shape variation. Last but not least, the study seems to support, rather than contradict, the information available from bones: it turns out that the conclusions of the analysis match the results of the Howells‘ craniometric studies. Good.


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  • Stáňa
    A new PhD student in the team working on craniovascular anatomy! Stanislava Eisová was in our laboratory few years ago, publishing a paper on parietal bone and vessels in which she investigated correlations between craniovascular morphology, skull size, and bone thickness. She got a Master Degree in Anthropology of Past Populations at the University of […] […]

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    Researchers at MIT have developed a new method of electrically stimulating deep brain tissues without opening the skullSince 1997, more than 100,000 Parkinson’s Disease patients have been treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical technique that involves the implantation of ultra-thin wire electrodes. The implanted device, sometimes referred to as […]

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