Posts Tagged 'brain globularity'

Globularity genes

Today, Philipp Gunz and colleagues have published a real milestone for paleoneurology: a comprehensive analysis integrating brain anatomy and paleogenetics to identify the genes involved in brain form differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. They compute an individual globularization index for a very large modern human sample size, and then look for the effect of supposedly introgressed Neanderthal genes. They found correlations between our individual brain globularity and genes involved in neurogenesis and myelination, most of all in putamen and cerebellum. Interestingly, they don’t find morphometric signals for parietal changes, even if there is evidence of actual parietal cortical differences among humans, between modern and extinct humans, and most of all between humans and apes. Furthermore, putamen and cerebellum are seriously involved in motor circuitry (including tool use?), something which is crucially coordinated by the parietal cortex, at physical (body) and virtual (visual imaging) level. As usually, caution is required when such complex methods are employed (in this case, the many assumptions in shape analysis, the many assumptions in brain imaging, and the many assumptions in paleogenetics). These results should be probably intended more to support hypotheses than to supply conclusive answers. Although these results point to individual brain shape differences among modern humans associated with neurogenesis and myelination, the study does not provide specific comments about possible functional or cognitive aspects, naming only some very general behavioral issues. Some relevant cogntive effects are, indeed, expected. The issue is definitely thorny (Neanderthal introgressed genes into our own species associated with consequences in individual brain form and development!), but should have probably deserved a more courageous interpretation. After all, also in science one must take into account that old and wise adage: if you don’t like the answer, don’t ask the question. In the supplementary information there is an amazing comparison (S1) between CT endocasts and MRI brains. This supplementary analysis is, in my opinion, a real jewel for this field, and I really hope that more future papers will be dedicated to what is here a single figure. Here an article from the New York Times.

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