Archive for the 'Cognition and behaviour' Category

Haptic cognition

We have now published a second perspective paper on cognitive archaeology and visuospatial integration, this time particularly focused on haptic experience and prehistoric tool handling. The article reviews issues in paleoneurology, parietal evolution and body cognition, and then presents three examples of methodological approaches that can be useful to investigate hand-tool relationships: shape analysis, grasping patterns, and electrodermography. The whole perspective is intimately associated with theories in extended cognition and embodiment. It is important to take in mind that this does not precisely deal with tool-making or tool functional use, but with tool sensing. These three aspects (making, using, and sensing) are cognitively and evolutionarily related, but they are also influenced by distinct biological factors. Tool sensing is something associated with haptic feedback, body cognition and perception, and tool integration in the body scheme. Prosthetic capacity and cognitive extension deal more with sensing (for example, body-tool integration) than with mechanical issues (like, for example, manual precision). Electrodermography can reveal patterns of attention and emotional engagement during the haptic experience. All this is probably part of a powerful visuospatial sketchpad, a crucial component when taking into account the traditional models on working memory. This article is published in a volume of the series Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, entitled “Processes of Visuo-spatial Attention and Working Memory”, edited by Timothy Hodgson (University of Lincoln). This week we have also published a preliminary survey on hand-tool morphometrics.

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Renki

Psychogeny and phylogeny, a unique and illuminating perspective on the natural history of the human beast …

Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt [1928-2018]

Visuospatial behaviours

After the perspective paper on visuospatial cognition and human evolution, and the review on visuospatial integration and the fossil record, we have now published a review article on visuospatial behaviors in archaeology. Here, we introduce and discuss parietal cortex evolution, embodiment, tool use and tool making, wayfinding, and the association between physical, chronological, and social spaces. A main target of cognitive archaeology is to test whether modern human cognition is due to a specific prosthetic capacity that enhances the functional relationships between body and technology, offloading brain functions and outsourcing information process to the enviroment. Something similar happens to … spiders! This chapter is part of a book dedicated to the Evolution of Primate Social Cognition (Springer).

Electrodermal archaeology

After all those surveys on parietal lobes and parietal evolution, some years ago we began investigating some functions particularly associated with the parietal cortex, and generically labeled as visuospatial integration. Some visuospatial behaviors can be inferred in fossils, according to anatomical and archaeological evidence. In my lab, we are interested in aspects bridging cognition, body, and tools. In a recent paper published in Progress in Brain Research we have applied electrodermal analysis to investigate the cognitive response during a haptic experience with stone tools. Electrodermal signals have been employed here to evaluate changes in emotion and attention during stone tool manipulation, as to evidence whether different tools exert different cognitive responses when handled. New methods for cognitive archaeology!

 

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The paper is part of a volume entitled “Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition: Evolutionary and Developmental Investigations of Behavioral Biases“, edited by Gillian Forrester, William Hopkins, Kristelle Hudry and Annukka Lindell.

What makes us humans

Hands (Leonardo)The Journal of Anthropological Sciences is now publishing the papers from the meeting “What Made Us Humans“, that took place in Erice on October 2014. The volume is edited by Telmo Pievani, Stefano Parmigiani and Ian Tattersall, and it includes contributions by Thomas Plummer, Dean Falk, Philip Lieberman, Jeffrey Schwartz, William Harcourt Smith, and many others. There is a section on brain and cognition, in which we publish a review on visuospatial functions and fossils. In this paper we discuss topics in extended cognition and embodiment, presenting the available sources of information from fossil anatomy: brain morphology, manipulative behaviors, and hand evolution. Modern humans displayed changes in all these traits, suggesting that differences in visuospatial integration processes may have been associated with changes of the embodying capacity, leading to derived and probably specialized relationships between brain, body, and environment. This article is a further reference on visuospatial integration and cognitive archaeology. All papers from this JASs volume are, as usually, free to download.

Visuospatial evolution

Descartes - Meditations metaphysiques 1641Visuospatial integration is essential in handling, tooling, simulation, and many specific tasks which are supposed to be crucial for human evolution. However, it may be even more important for theories on extended cognition, taking into account the relevance in coordinating the relationships among brain, body, and environment. This is something directly associated with concepts like embodiment, material engagement, and brain-artefact interface. And this is pretty intriguing when considering that the upper and medial parietal areas, which are major functional nodes of visuospatial integration, show a remarkable enlargement only in Homo sapiens. Together with Atsushi Iriki (Riken Brain Institute), we have now published a review trying to interlace all these issues: Extending mind, visuospatial integration, and the evolution of the parietal lobes in the human genus. We have tried to integrate topics in neurobiology, paleoneurology, cognitive archaeology, and comparative primatology, to understand why and how visuospatial integration may have been important, in our genus and in our species, for enhancing material engagement and embodying capacities. This article will be part of an issue of Quaternary International dedicated to the importance of “Material dimensions of cognition”. At the same time, the Journal of Anthropological Sciences is now publishing a second forum on the “three hands” of the Neandertals. The hypothesis of a mismatch between visuospatial functions and cultural complexity in this human species is further discussed with comments by Leee Overmann, Enza Spinapolice, Joseba Rios Garaizar, Ariane Burke, Carlos Lorenzo, and Duilio Garofoli. All the papers of the forum are free to download.

Human Paleoneurology

Human Paleoneurology 2014The book “Human Paleoneurology” is now available on the website of the Springer Series in Bio-/Neuroinformatics. There is an introduction by Ralph Holloway, evidencing some open questions on endocasts. Laura Reyes and Chet Sherwood discuss current issues in evolutionary neuroscience. Philipp Gunz talks about computed methods and digital tools used to reconstruct and compare brain forms. I present a review in functional craniology, namely on the structural relationships between brain and braincase. Simon Neubauer focuses on brain evolution in ontogeny and phylogeny, dealing with the variations in brain size and shape. Natalie Uomini provides an archaeological perspective on behaviour. Erin Hecht and Dietrich Stout supply a detailed description of methods and topics in neuroarchaeology. Fred Coolidge, Tom Wynn, Leee Overmann and Jim Hicks present an overview in cognitive archaeology. A set of images by José Manuel de la Cuétara shows cranial and endocranial digital reconstructions of living apes and extinct hominids. Here a list of chapters and authors. This is a comprehensive collection of papers useful for anyone interested in approaching this field, good for teaching and helpful to present the current state-of-the-art of this discipline.


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