Brainstorm …

As properly remarked in the prequel of the Planet of the Apes, we know everything about our brain, except how it does work. We are aware of such lack of knowledge, at least in theory. In practice, papers are replete of firm sentences and conclusive statements. But we use complex programs and devices, and we should not forget that these tools can only generate models of reality. Models based on algorithms that are trying to represent and simulate only some specific physical or spatial properties. Our brain models are but statistical outputs, not real “brains”. We identify brain activity through indirect blood or metabolic functions, assuming there is a strict correspondence between those signals and our concept of “at work”. A correspondence that is reasonable, but not that strict. Even basic anatomical issues can be blurred after a more detailed scrutiny, mostly when previous knowledge is based on information that has been copy-and-pasted through decades. We are more and more finding strange factors influencing our results. Apparently, the brain undergoes daily variations, and the braincase may suffer seasonal changes. Brain structure and function can be even influenced by head position and posture. These unexpected effects recommend further caution when making too general conclusions from specific and punctual results. Let’s take into account that we still miss much information on gross neuroanatomical components. For example, we still ignore the function of the cerebellum, that has four time the number of neurons of the brain, and we still don’t know all the functions of the glial cells, that may be nine times more numerous than neurons. And, we don’t know how much brain anatomy and functions are the result of genetic programs or environmental influences. In only few weeks, training can easily improve or demote brain complexity. Nothing new under the sun: science is about hypotheses, and hypotheses need to be tested and validated. Our models are tentatively designed with this scope in mind. This summer post is a summary of articles concerning some methodological limitations and some curious result dealing with brain structure and function. And an invitation to interpret results for what they are: evidences supporting or rejecting hypotheses. Remember that those are not neurons: just pixels! Take it easy …

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