One of the main achievements in anatomy and morphometrics has been the introduction of the concepts of integration and modularity. Characters (and genes) are no longer interpreted as individual and independent units, but integrated into structural and functional systems. This does not mean that everything is integrated, and we should recognize that integration and modularity are based on both continuous and discontinuous hierarchies presenting many different degrees of relationship. There may be distinct combinations, and very different situations. Analyzing the structure of covariance of the endocranial base in modern humans, I suggested that local influences can be more relevant that general and long-range factors, in shaping the endocranial districts. An admixture of effects from brain, face, posture, muscles, physiology and biomechanics, makes local factors decisive to mould the specific endocranial areas. Similar results were obtained when analyzing the covariance patterns of the midsagittal brain morphology. Now Aida Gómez-Robles and colleagues have published a decisive analysis: the whole brain in three dimensions. The integration among brain parts is modest, and largely based on spatial proximity. Local factors are crucial in moulding the brain areas, at least in terms of their morphology and position. Initially one can be deceived if expecting to find a more integrated system. But at the same time such an independent organization suggests that local form changes can be analyzed considering the local context, the morphology being less contaminated by external (long-range) effects. Interpretations are easier if only local factors must be evaluated. This is something extremely relevant when dealing with evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoneurology, and functional craniology. And then there is an issue on evolvability: the authors suggest that such limited integration can facilitate evolutionary changes.
apes Atapuerca Australopithecus brain-artefact interface brain atlas brain biology braincase brain size brain thermoregulation CENIEH Cercopithecoids chimpanzee China cognitive archaeology corpus callosum cortical folding cortical surface cranial thickness diploic channels eLearning embodiment encephalization endocranial ontogeny endocranial volume evo-devo extended mind fossil endocasts Frederick Coolidge frontal bone frontal lobes functional craniology geometric morphometrics hemispheric asymmetries Holocene Homo erectus human ethology human genus intraparietal sulcus Konrad Lorenz Institute language Le Moustier macaque Malu Cave mammals metopic suture Mezmaiskaya modern humans myopia Neandertals occipital lobes orbits paleoneurology Pan paniscus Pan troglodytes parietal bone parietal lobes petalia Philipp Gunz Phillip Tobias photography precuneus primate brain sexual dimorphism shape analysis Simon Neubauer social primatology species concept subparietal sulcus sulcal patterns sulci symbolic thinking Taung child University of Colorado University of Liverpool visuospatial integration
- How big brains evolved could be revealed by new mathematical modelhttp://www.psypost.org/2017/03/big-brains-evolved-revealed-new-mathematical-model-48198
- DECODING MIMBRES PAINTINGThis extended abstract represents a summary introduction to a work in progress, which will culminate in a publication and exhibition at The Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 2018. It briefly outlines our discoveries and interpretations, which will be more fully presented, referenced and discussed in the forthcoming catalog. This presentation is available f […]
- Brain Volume DatabaseThe Internet Brain Volume Database (IBVD) is an online collection of neuroimaging data funded as a part of the international initiative, the Human Brain Project. The IBVD provides access data for both individual and among-group comparisons that allow total volume comparisons with parallelization of the brain into hemispheres, specific lobes or grey matter vo […]
- The Effect of Diet Changes and The Selection of European Fatty Acid DesaturasesUC Berkeley Integrative Biologist, Rasmus Nielsen and his colleagues, published a fascinating study in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution looking at …Continue reading →
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- How to become a super memorizer – and what it does to your brainNew research shows that we can train our brains to become memory champions To many of us, having to memorize a long list of items feels like a chore. But for others, it is more like a sport. Every year, hundreds of these ‘memory athletes’ compete with one another in the World Memory Championships, memorising hundreds of words, numbers, or other pieces of inf […]
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