Frontal matters

Saccopastore 1 (EBruner)A re-evaluation of brain volumetric data, adjusting for scaling and phylogeny, adds further evidence against the hypothesis of morphological changes in the frontal lobes for our species. Despite a century of firm claims on the patent role of the frontal lobes in our evolution, there are now many different indications suggesting that those statements were probably excessive and not well demonstrated. It seems that there is no clear specific change in the general morphology of the frontal lobes in Homo sapiens, and even the correspondence between anatomy and functions has lost strength. We must take into consideration the possibility that differences may be subtle but important. A minor shift from the general tendency may be irrelevant for the statistical thresholds but important in biological terms (for example, this can be the case for white matter proportions). There may be also changes which have not been detected yet, as well as changes that are not evident from gross morphometrics. Furthermore, even if volumetric changes in our frontal lobes are those expected for our large brain size, the increase in terms of absolute size is patent, and this may be a relevant difference anyway. Throughout this debate, it is interesting to note how the paleoneurological information is generally ignored. Despite the many inferences on the evolutionary changes in the brain human form, there is no mention of the notable advances published on the evolution of brain geometry in our species. This is even more imprudent when considering that anthropology is currently employing very complete and powerful morphometric tools, while in neuroscience most data still refers only to general size measures. However, even using just basic morphometric variables, we know that modern humans and Neandertals experienced at least a change in the proportions of the frontal areas. Excluding the fossil evidence from the debate does not seem to be a good idea, at least when dealing with evolutionary studies.

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