Brain and eye

Paleoanthropologists are now fairly convinced about the importance of integration in biology and evolution. It is a rare pleasure to see such perspectives successfully applied to every-day life problems. Michael Masters, with a very well documented study on human evolution and functional craniology, suggests that myopia (the primary source of reduced vision throughout the world) may be the consequence of our recent anatomical evolution. Large brains placing the frontal lobes on the orbital roof and constraining the orbital space, while at the same time facial reduction provides further structural limitations. That is, in our species the orbit cannot acknowledge properly the morphological requirements of the eye. Brain and eye compete for space, and the advantages associated with the former are paid with the problems associated with the latter. The consequent packing deforms the eye, leading to vision problems. Allometric and brachycephalic proportions make the situation even a bit more difficult in women and East Asian populations. This hypothesis is an excellent example of interchange between evolutionary biology and medicine. Until now, myopia has been mostly studied considering the eye like an isolated unit. Masters has now provided a very effective example of how induction and deduction can be improved mixing fields, in this case integrating medicine with functional craniology and paleoanthropology.  Interestingly, similar deformations associated with the frontal lobe spatial packing have been also described for some psychiatric disorders.

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